Reshaping the vector control strategy for malaria elimination in Ethiopia in the context of current evidence and new tools: opportunities and challenges
The core vector control measures, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), reduce the risk of malaria infection by targeting indoor biting mosquitoes. These two interventions are found to be effective in malaria control, but not sufficient to eliminate malaria. The main challenges with LLINs and IRS are insecticide resistance, misuse of the interventions, host behaviour, such as staying out-door during early night or sleeping outdoor without using protective measures, and vector behaviour including feeding on bovine blood, outdoor biting and outdoor resting. Therefore, for complete interruption of malaria transmission in a defined area there is a need to consider a variety of interventions that can help prevent out-door as well as indoor malaria transmission. In Ethiopia, to achieve the malaria elimination goal, a mix of vector control tools, such as intensifying the use of LLINs and IRS, and supplemented by use of ivermectin administration, zooprophylaxis, odour-baited mosquito trapping, improving housing and larva control measures tailored to the local situation of malaria transmission, may be needed.