Risk factors associated with house entry of malaria vectors in an area of Burkina Faso with high, persistent malaria transmission and high insecticide resistance

18.10.21
Jean Baptiste Yaro, Alfred B. Tonio, Sanou Antoine, Hyacinthe K. Toe, John Bradley, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Z. Amidou Ouedraogo, Moussa W. Guelbeogo, Efundem Agboraw, Eve Worrall, N.’Fale Sagnon, Steven W. Lindsay and Anne L. Wilson

Background

In rural Burkina Faso, the primary malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) primarily feeds indoors at night. Identification of factors which influence mosquito house entry could lead to development of novel malaria vector control interventions. A study was therefore carried out to identify risk factors associated with house entry of An. gambiae s.l. in south-west Burkina Faso, an area of high insecticide resistance.

Methods

Mosquitoes were sampled monthly during the malaria transmission season using CDC light traps in 252 houses from 10 villages, each house sleeping at least one child aged five to 15 years old. Potential risk factors for house entry of An. gambiae s.l. were measured, including socio-economic status, caregiver’s education and occupation, number of people sleeping in the same part of the house as the child, use of anti-mosquito measures, house construction and fittings, proximity of anopheline aquatic habitats and presence of animals near the house. Mosquito counts were compared using a generalized linear mixed-effect model with negative binomial and log link function, adjusting for repeated collections.

Results

20,929 mosquitoes were caught, of which 16,270 (77.7%) were An. gambiae s.l. Of the 6691 An. gambiae s.l. identified to species, 4101 (61.3%) were An. gambiae sensu stricto and 2590 (38.7%) Anopheles coluzzii. Having a metal-roof on the child’s sleeping space (IRR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.95, p = 0.03) was associated with fewer malaria vectors inside the home.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that the rate of An. gambiae s.l. was 45% lower in sleeping spaces with a metal roof, compared to those with thatch roofs. Improvements in house construction, including installation of metal roofs, should be considered in endemic areas of Africa to reduce the burden of malaria.